Source code for fs.base

"""PyFilesystem base class.

The filesystem base class is common to all filesystems. If you
familiarize yourself with this (rather straightforward) API, you
can work with any of the supported filesystems.

"""

from __future__ import absolute_import, print_function, unicode_literals

import abc
import hashlib
import itertools
import os
import threading
import time
import typing
from contextlib import closing
from functools import partial, wraps
import warnings

import six

from . import copy, errors, fsencode, iotools, move, tools, walk, wildcard
from .copy import copy_modified_time
from .glob import BoundGlobber
from .mode import validate_open_mode
from .path import abspath, join, normpath
from .time import datetime_to_epoch
from .walk import Walker

if typing.TYPE_CHECKING:
    from datetime import datetime
    from threading import RLock
    from typing import (
        Any,
        BinaryIO,
        Callable,
        Collection,
        Dict,
        IO,
        Iterable,
        Iterator,
        List,
        Mapping,
        Optional,
        Text,
        Tuple,
        Type,
        Union,
    )
    from types import TracebackType
    from .enums import ResourceType
    from .info import Info, RawInfo
    from .subfs import SubFS
    from .permissions import Permissions
    from .walk import BoundWalker

    _F = typing.TypeVar("_F", bound="FS")
    _T = typing.TypeVar("_T", bound="FS")
    _OpendirFactory = Callable[[_T, Text], SubFS[_T]]


__all__ = ["FS"]


def _new_name(method, old_name):
    """Return a method with a deprecation warning."""
    # Looks suspiciously like a decorator, but isn't!

    @wraps(method)
    def _method(*args, **kwargs):
        warnings.warn(
            "method '{}' has been deprecated, please rename to '{}'".format(
                old_name, method.__name__
            ),
            DeprecationWarning,
        )
        return method(*args, **kwargs)

    deprecated_msg = """
        Note:
            .. deprecated:: 2.2.0
                Please use `~{}`
""".format(
        method.__name__
    )
    if getattr(_method, "__doc__", None) is not None:
        _method.__doc__ += deprecated_msg

    return _method


[docs]@six.add_metaclass(abc.ABCMeta) class FS(object): """Base class for FS objects.""" # This is the "standard" meta namespace. _meta = {} # type: Dict[Text, Union[Text, int, bool, None]] # most FS will use default walking algorithms walker_class = Walker # default to SubFS, used by opendir and should be returned by makedir(s) subfs_class = None
[docs] def __init__(self): # type: (...) -> None """Create a filesystem. See help(type(self)) for accurate signature.""" self._closed = False self._lock = threading.RLock() super(FS, self).__init__()
[docs] def __del__(self): """Auto-close the filesystem on exit.""" self.close()
[docs] def __enter__(self): # type: (...) -> FS """Allow use of filesystem as a context manager.""" return self
[docs] def __exit__( self, exc_type, # type: Optional[Type[BaseException]] exc_value, # type: Optional[BaseException] traceback, # type: Optional[TracebackType] ): # type: (...) -> None """Close filesystem on exit.""" self.close()
@property def glob(self): """`~fs.glob.BoundGlobber`: a globber object..""" return BoundGlobber(self) @property def walk(self): # type: (_F) -> BoundWalker[_F] """`~fs.walk.BoundWalker`: a walker bound to this filesystem.""" return self.walker_class.bind(self) # ---------------------------------------------------------------- # # Required methods # # Filesystems must implement these methods. # # ---------------------------------------------------------------- #
[docs] @abc.abstractmethod def getinfo(self, path, namespaces=None): # type: (Text, Optional[Collection[Text]]) -> Info """Get information about a resource on a filesystem. Arguments: path (str): A path to a resource on the filesystem. namespaces (list, optional): Info namespaces to query. The `"basic"` namespace is alway included in the returned info, whatever the value of `namespaces` may be. Returns: ~fs.info.Info: resource information object. Raises: fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If ``path`` does not exist. For more information regarding resource information, see :ref:`info`. """
[docs] @abc.abstractmethod def listdir(self, path): # type: (Text) -> List[Text] """Get a list of the resource names in a directory. This method will return a list of the resources in a directory. A *resource* is a file, directory, or one of the other types defined in `~fs.enums.ResourceType`. Arguments: path (str): A path to a directory on the filesystem Returns: list: list of names, relative to ``path``. Raises: fs.errors.DirectoryExpected: If ``path`` is not a directory. fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If ``path`` does not exist. """
[docs] @abc.abstractmethod def makedir( self, path, # type: Text permissions=None, # type: Optional[Permissions] recreate=False, # type: bool ): # type: (...) -> SubFS[FS] """Make a directory. Arguments: path (str): Path to directory from root. permissions (~fs.permissions.Permissions, optional): a `Permissions` instance, or `None` to use default. recreate (bool): Set to `True` to avoid raising an error if the directory already exists (defaults to `False`). Returns: ~fs.subfs.SubFS: a filesystem whose root is the new directory. Raises: fs.errors.DirectoryExists: If the path already exists. fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If the path is not found. """
[docs] @abc.abstractmethod def openbin( self, path, # type: Text mode="r", # type: Text buffering=-1, # type: int **options # type: Any ): # type: (...) -> BinaryIO """Open a binary file-like object. Arguments: path (str): A path on the filesystem. mode (str): Mode to open file (must be a valid non-text mode, defaults to *r*). Since this method only opens binary files, the ``b`` in the mode string is implied. buffering (int): Buffering policy (-1 to use default buffering, 0 to disable buffering, or any positive integer to indicate a buffer size). **options: keyword arguments for any additional information required by the filesystem (if any). Returns: io.IOBase: a *file-like* object. Raises: fs.errors.FileExpected: If ``path`` exists and is not a file. fs.errors.FileExists: If the ``path`` exists, and *exclusive mode* is specified (``x`` in the mode). fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If ``path`` does not exist and ``mode`` does not imply creating the file, or if any ancestor of ``path`` does not exist. """
[docs] @abc.abstractmethod def remove(self, path): # type: (Text) -> None """Remove a file from the filesystem. Arguments: path (str): Path of the file to remove. Raises: fs.errors.FileExpected: If the path is a directory. fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If the path does not exist. """
[docs] @abc.abstractmethod def removedir(self, path): # type: (Text) -> None """Remove a directory from the filesystem. Arguments: path (str): Path of the directory to remove. Raises: fs.errors.DirectoryNotEmpty: If the directory is not empty ( see `~fs.base.FS.removetree` for a way to remove the directory contents). fs.errors.DirectoryExpected: If the path does not refer to a directory. fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If no resource exists at the given path. fs.errors.RemoveRootError: If an attempt is made to remove the root directory (i.e. ``'/'``) """
[docs] @abc.abstractmethod def setinfo(self, path, info): # type: (Text, RawInfo) -> None """Set info on a resource. This method is the complement to `~fs.base.FS.getinfo` and is used to set info values on a resource. Arguments: path (str): Path to a resource on the filesystem. info (dict): Dictionary of resource info. Raises: fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If ``path`` does not exist on the filesystem The ``info`` dict should be in the same format as the raw info returned by ``getinfo(file).raw``. Example: >>> details_info = {"details": { ... "modified": time.time() ... }} >>> my_fs.setinfo('file.txt', details_info) """
# ---------------------------------------------------------------- # # Optional methods # # Filesystems *may* implement these methods. # # ---------------------------------------------------------------- #
[docs] def appendbytes(self, path, data): # type: (Text, bytes) -> None # FIXME(@althonos): accept bytearray and memoryview as well ? """Append bytes to the end of a file, creating it if needed. Arguments: path (str): Path to a file. data (bytes): Bytes to append. Raises: TypeError: If ``data`` is not a `bytes` instance. fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If a parent directory of ``path`` does not exist. """ if not isinstance(data, bytes): raise TypeError("must be bytes") with self._lock: with self.open(path, "ab") as append_file: append_file.write(data)
[docs] def appendtext( self, path, # type: Text text, # type: Text encoding="utf-8", # type: Text errors=None, # type: Optional[Text] newline="", # type: Text ): # type: (...) -> None """Append text to the end of a file, creating it if needed. Arguments: path (str): Path to a file. text (str): Text to append. encoding (str): Encoding for text files (defaults to ``utf-8``). errors (str, optional): What to do with unicode decode errors (see `codecs` module for more information). newline (str): Newline parameter. Raises: TypeError: if ``text`` is not an unicode string. fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: if a parent directory of ``path`` does not exist. """ if not isinstance(text, six.text_type): raise TypeError("must be unicode string") with self._lock: with self.open( path, "at", encoding=encoding, errors=errors, newline=newline ) as append_file: append_file.write(text)
[docs] def close(self): # type: () -> None """Close the filesystem and release any resources. It is important to call this method when you have finished working with the filesystem. Some filesystems may not finalize changes until they are closed (archives for example). You may call this method explicitly (it is safe to call close multiple times), or you can use the filesystem as a context manager to automatically close. Example: >>> with OSFS('~/Desktop') as desktop_fs: ... desktop_fs.writetext( ... 'note.txt', ... "Don't forget to tape Game of Thrones" ... ) If you attempt to use a filesystem that has been closed, a `~fs.errors.FilesystemClosed` exception will be thrown. """ self._closed = True
[docs] def copy( self, src_path, # type: Text dst_path, # type: Text overwrite=False, # type: bool preserve_time=False, # type: bool ): # type: (...) -> None """Copy file contents from ``src_path`` to ``dst_path``. Arguments: src_path (str): Path of source file. dst_path (str): Path to destination file. overwrite (bool): If `True`, overwrite the destination file if it exists (defaults to `False`). preserve_time (bool): If `True`, try to preserve mtime of the resource (defaults to `False`). Raises: fs.errors.DestinationExists: If ``dst_path`` exists, and ``overwrite`` is `False`. fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If a parent directory of ``dst_path`` does not exist. fs.errors.FileExpected: If ``src_path`` is not a file. """ with self._lock: if not overwrite and self.exists(dst_path): raise errors.DestinationExists(dst_path) with closing(self.open(src_path, "rb")) as read_file: # FIXME(@althonos): typing complains because open return IO self.upload(dst_path, read_file) # type: ignore if preserve_time: copy_modified_time(self, src_path, self, dst_path)
[docs] def copydir( self, src_path, # type: Text dst_path, # type: Text create=False, # type: bool preserve_time=False, # type: bool ): # type: (...) -> None """Copy the contents of ``src_path`` to ``dst_path``. Arguments: src_path (str): Path of source directory. dst_path (str): Path to destination directory. create (bool): If `True`, then ``dst_path`` will be created if it doesn't exist already (defaults to `False`). preserve_time (bool): If `True`, try to preserve mtime of the resource (defaults to `False`). Raises: fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If the ``dst_path`` does not exist, and ``create`` is not `True`. fs.errors.DirectoryExpected: If ``src_path`` is not a directory. """ with self._lock: if not create and not self.exists(dst_path): raise errors.ResourceNotFound(dst_path) if not self.getinfo(src_path).is_dir: raise errors.DirectoryExpected(src_path) copy.copy_dir(self, src_path, self, dst_path, preserve_time=preserve_time)
[docs] def create(self, path, wipe=False): # type: (Text, bool) -> bool """Create an empty file. The default behavior is to create a new file if one doesn't already exist. If ``wipe`` is `True`, any existing file will be truncated. Arguments: path (str): Path to a new file in the filesystem. wipe (bool): If `True`, truncate any existing file to 0 bytes (defaults to `False`). Returns: bool: `True` if a new file had to be created. """ with self._lock: if not wipe and self.exists(path): return False with closing(self.open(path, "wb")): pass return True
[docs] def desc(self, path): # type: (Text) -> Text """Return a short descriptive text regarding a path. Arguments: path (str): A path to a resource on the filesystem. Returns: str: a short description of the path. Raises: fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If ``path`` does not exist. """ if not self.exists(path): raise errors.ResourceNotFound(path) try: syspath = self.getsyspath(path) except (errors.ResourceNotFound, errors.NoSysPath): return "{} on {}".format(path, self) else: return syspath
[docs] def exists(self, path): # type: (Text) -> bool """Check if a path maps to a resource. Arguments: path (str): Path to a resource. Returns: bool: `True` if a resource exists at the given path. """ try: self.getinfo(path) except errors.ResourceNotFound: return False else: return True
[docs] def filterdir( self, path, # type: Text files=None, # type: Optional[Iterable[Text]] dirs=None, # type: Optional[Iterable[Text]] exclude_dirs=None, # type: Optional[Iterable[Text]] exclude_files=None, # type: Optional[Iterable[Text]] namespaces=None, # type: Optional[Collection[Text]] page=None, # type: Optional[Tuple[int, int]] ): # type: (...) -> Iterator[Info] """Get an iterator of resource info, filtered by patterns. This method enhances `~fs.base.FS.scandir` with additional filtering functionality. Arguments: path (str): A path to a directory on the filesystem. files (list, optional): A list of UNIX shell-style patterns to filter file names, e.g. ``['*.py']``. dirs (list, optional): A list of UNIX shell-style patterns to filter directory names. exclude_dirs (list, optional): A list of patterns used to exclude directories. exclude_files (list, optional): A list of patterns used to exclude files. namespaces (list, optional): A list of namespaces to include in the resource information, e.g. ``['basic', 'access']``. page (tuple, optional): May be a tuple of ``(<start>, <end>)`` indexes to return an iterator of a subset of the resource info, or `None` to iterate over the entire directory. Paging a directory scan may be necessary for very large directories. Returns: ~collections.abc.Iterator: an iterator of `Info` objects. """ resources = self.scandir(path, namespaces=namespaces) filters = [] def match_dir(patterns, info): # type: (Optional[Iterable[Text]], Info) -> bool """Pattern match info.name.""" return info.is_file or self.match(patterns, info.name) def match_file(patterns, info): # type: (Optional[Iterable[Text]], Info) -> bool """Pattern match info.name.""" return info.is_dir or self.match(patterns, info.name) def exclude_dir(patterns, info): # type: (Optional[Iterable[Text]], Info) -> bool """Pattern match info.name.""" return info.is_file or not self.match(patterns, info.name) def exclude_file(patterns, info): # type: (Optional[Iterable[Text]], Info) -> bool """Pattern match info.name.""" return info.is_dir or not self.match(patterns, info.name) if files: filters.append(partial(match_file, files)) if dirs: filters.append(partial(match_dir, dirs)) if exclude_dirs: filters.append(partial(exclude_dir, exclude_dirs)) if exclude_files: filters.append(partial(exclude_file, exclude_files)) if filters: resources = ( info for info in resources if all(_filter(info) for _filter in filters) ) iter_info = iter(resources) if page is not None: start, end = page iter_info = itertools.islice(iter_info, start, end) return iter_info
[docs] def readbytes(self, path): # type: (Text) -> bytes """Get the contents of a file as bytes. Arguments: path (str): A path to a readable file on the filesystem. Returns: bytes: the file contents. Raises: fs.errors.FileExpected: if ``path`` exists but is not a file. fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: if ``path`` does not exist. """ with closing(self.open(path, mode="rb")) as read_file: contents = read_file.read() return contents
getbytes = _new_name(readbytes, "getbytes")
[docs] def download(self, path, file, chunk_size=None, **options): # type: (Text, BinaryIO, Optional[int], **Any) -> None """Copy a file from the filesystem to a file-like object. This may be more efficient that opening and copying files manually if the filesystem supplies an optimized method. Note that the file object ``file`` will *not* be closed by this method. Take care to close it after this method completes (ideally with a context manager). Arguments: path (str): Path to a resource. file (file-like): A file-like object open for writing in binary mode. chunk_size (int, optional): Number of bytes to read at a time, if a simple copy is used, or `None` to use sensible default. **options: Implementation specific options required to open the source file. Example: >>> with open('starwars.mov', 'wb') as write_file: ... my_fs.download('/Videos/starwars.mov', write_file) Raises: fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: if ``path`` does not exist. """ with self._lock: with self.openbin(path, **options) as read_file: tools.copy_file_data(read_file, file, chunk_size=chunk_size)
getfile = _new_name(download, "getfile")
[docs] def readtext( self, path, # type: Text encoding=None, # type: Optional[Text] errors=None, # type: Optional[Text] newline="", # type: Text ): # type: (...) -> Text """Get the contents of a file as a string. Arguments: path (str): A path to a readable file on the filesystem. encoding (str, optional): Encoding to use when reading contents in text mode (defaults to `None`, reading in binary mode). errors (str, optional): Unicode errors parameter. newline (str): Newlines parameter. Returns: str: file contents. Raises: fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If ``path`` does not exist. """ with closing( self.open( path, mode="rt", encoding=encoding, errors=errors, newline=newline ) ) as read_file: contents = read_file.read() return contents
gettext = _new_name(readtext, "gettext")
[docs] def getmodified(self, path): # type: (Text) -> Optional[datetime] """Get the timestamp of the last modifying access of a resource. Arguments: path (str): A path to a resource. Returns: datetime: The timestamp of the last modification. The *modified timestamp* of a file is the point in time that the file was last changed. Depending on the file system, it might only have limited accuracy. """ return self.getinfo(path, namespaces=["details"]).modified
[docs] def getmeta(self, namespace="standard"): # type: (Text) -> Mapping[Text, object] """Get meta information regarding a filesystem. Arguments: namespace (str): The meta namespace (defaults to ``"standard"``). Returns: dict: the meta information. Meta information is associated with a *namespace* which may be specified with the ``namespace`` parameter. The default namespace, ``"standard"``, contains common information regarding the filesystem's capabilities. Some filesystems may provide other namespaces which expose less common or implementation specific information. If a requested namespace is not supported by a filesystem, then an empty dictionary will be returned. The ``"standard"`` namespace supports the following keys: =================== ============================================ key Description ------------------- -------------------------------------------- case_insensitive `True` if this filesystem is case insensitive. invalid_path_chars A string containing the characters that may not be used on this filesystem. max_path_length Maximum number of characters permitted in a path, or `None` for no limit. max_sys_path_length Maximum number of characters permitted in a sys path, or `None` for no limit. network `True` if this filesystem requires a network. read_only `True` if this filesystem is read only. supports_rename `True` if this filesystem supports an `os.rename` operation. =================== ============================================ Most builtin filesystems will provide all these keys, and third- party filesystems should do so whenever possible, but a key may not be present if there is no way to know the value. Note: Meta information is constant for the lifetime of the filesystem, and may be cached. """ if namespace == "standard": meta = self._meta.copy() else: meta = {} return meta
[docs] def getsize(self, path): # type: (Text) -> int """Get the size (in bytes) of a resource. Arguments: path (str): A path to a resource. Returns: int: the *size* of the resource. Raises: fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: if ``path`` does not exist. The *size* of a file is the total number of readable bytes, which may not reflect the exact number of bytes of reserved disk space (or other storage medium). The size of a directory is the number of bytes of overhead use to store the directory entry. """ size = self.getdetails(path).size return size
[docs] def getsyspath(self, path): # type: (Text) -> Text """Get the *system path* of a resource. Arguments: path (str): A path on the filesystem. Returns: str: the *system path* of the resource, if any. Raises: fs.errors.NoSysPath: If there is no corresponding system path. A system path is one recognized by the OS, that may be used outside of PyFilesystem (in an application or a shell for example). This method will get the corresponding system path that would be referenced by ``path``. Not all filesystems have associated system paths. Network and memory based filesystems, for example, may not physically store data anywhere the OS knows about. It is also possible for some paths to have a system path, whereas others don't. This method will always return a str on Py3.* and unicode on Py2.7. See `~getospath` if you need to encode the path as bytes. If ``path`` doesn't have a system path, a `~fs.errors.NoSysPath` exception will be thrown. Note: A filesystem may return a system path even if no resource is referenced by that path -- as long as it can be certain what that system path would be. """ raise errors.NoSysPath(path=path)
[docs] def getospath(self, path): # type: (Text) -> bytes """Get the *system path* to a resource, in the OS' prefered encoding. Arguments: path (str): A path on the filesystem. Returns: str: the *system path* of the resource, if any. Raises: fs.errors.NoSysPath: If there is no corresponding system path. This method takes the output of `~getsyspath` and encodes it to the filesystem's prefered encoding. In Python3 this step is not required, as the `os` module will do it automatically. In Python2.7, the encoding step is required to support filenames on the filesystem that don't encode correctly. Note: If you want your code to work in Python2.7 and Python3 then use this method if you want to work with the OS filesystem outside of the OSFS interface. """ syspath = self.getsyspath(path) ospath = fsencode(syspath) return ospath
[docs] def gettype(self, path): # type: (Text) -> ResourceType """Get the type of a resource. Arguments: path (str): A path on the filesystem. Returns: ~fs.enums.ResourceType: the type of the resource. Raises: fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: if ``path`` does not exist. A type of a resource is an integer that identifies the what the resource references. The standard type integers may be one of the values in the `~fs.enums.ResourceType` enumerations. The most common resource types, supported by virtually all filesystems are ``directory`` (1) and ``file`` (2), but the following types are also possible: =================== ====== ResourceType value ------------------- ------ unknown 0 directory 1 file 2 character 3 block_special_file 4 fifo 5 socket 6 symlink 7 =================== ====== Standard resource types are positive integers, negative values are reserved for implementation specific resource types. """ resource_type = self.getdetails(path).type return resource_type
[docs] def geturl(self, path, purpose="download"): # type: (Text, Text) -> Text """Get the URL to a given resource. Arguments: path (str): A path on the filesystem purpose (str): A short string that indicates which URL to retrieve for the given path (if there is more than one). The default is ``'download'``, which should return a URL that serves the file. Other filesystems may support other values for ``purpose``. Returns: str: a URL. Raises: fs.errors.NoURL: If the path does not map to a URL. """ raise errors.NoURL(path, purpose)
[docs] def hassyspath(self, path): # type: (Text) -> bool """Check if a path maps to a system path. Arguments: path (str): A path on the filesystem. Returns: bool: `True` if the resource at ``path`` has a *syspath*. """ has_sys_path = True try: self.getsyspath(path) except errors.NoSysPath: has_sys_path = False return has_sys_path
[docs] def hasurl(self, path, purpose="download"): # type: (Text, Text) -> bool """Check if a path has a corresponding URL. Arguments: path (str): A path on the filesystem. purpose (str): A purpose parameter, as given in `~fs.base.FS.geturl`. Returns: bool: `True` if an URL for the given purpose exists. """ has_url = True try: self.geturl(path, purpose=purpose) except errors.NoURL: has_url = False return has_url
[docs] def isclosed(self): # type: () -> bool """Check if the filesystem is closed.""" return getattr(self, "_closed", False)
[docs] def isdir(self, path): # type: (Text) -> bool """Check if a path maps to an existing directory. Arguments: path (str): A path on the filesystem. Returns: bool: `True` if ``path`` maps to a directory. """ try: return self.getinfo(path).is_dir except errors.ResourceNotFound: return False
[docs] def isempty(self, path): # type: (Text) -> bool """Check if a directory is empty. A directory is considered empty when it does not contain any file or any directory. Arguments: path (str): A path to a directory on the filesystem. Returns: bool: `True` if the directory is empty. Raises: errors.DirectoryExpected: If ``path`` is not a directory. errors.ResourceNotFound: If ``path`` does not exist. """ return next(iter(self.scandir(path)), None) is None
[docs] def isfile(self, path): # type: (Text) -> bool """Check if a path maps to an existing file. Arguments: path (str): A path on the filesystem. Returns: bool: `True` if ``path`` maps to a file. """ try: return not self.getinfo(path).is_dir except errors.ResourceNotFound: return False
[docs] def lock(self): # type: () -> RLock """Get a context manager that *locks* the filesystem. Locking a filesystem gives a thread exclusive access to it. Other threads will block until the threads with the lock has left the context manager. Returns: threading.RLock: a lock specific to the filesystem instance. Example: >>> with my_fs.lock(): # May block ... # code here has exclusive access to the filesystem ... pass It is a good idea to put a lock around any operations that you would like to be *atomic*. For instance if you are copying files, and you don't want another thread to delete or modify anything while the copy is in progress. Locking with this method is only required for code that calls multiple filesystem methods. Individual methods are thread safe already, and don't need to be locked. Note: This only locks at the Python level. There is nothing to prevent other processes from modifying the filesystem outside of the filesystem instance. """ return self._lock
[docs] def movedir(self, src_path, dst_path, create=False, preserve_time=False): # type: (Text, Text, bool, bool) -> None """Move directory ``src_path`` to ``dst_path``. Arguments: src_path (str): Path of source directory on the filesystem. dst_path (str): Path to destination directory. create (bool): If `True`, then ``dst_path`` will be created if it doesn't exist already (defaults to `False`). preserve_time (bool): If `True`, try to preserve mtime of the resources (defaults to `False`). Raises: fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: if ``dst_path`` does not exist, and ``create`` is `False`. fs.errors.DirectoryExpected: if ``src_path`` or one of its ancestors is not a directory. """ with self._lock: if not create and not self.exists(dst_path): raise errors.ResourceNotFound(dst_path) move.move_dir(self, src_path, self, dst_path, preserve_time=preserve_time)
[docs] def makedirs( self, path, # type: Text permissions=None, # type: Optional[Permissions] recreate=False, # type: bool ): # type: (...) -> SubFS[FS] """Make a directory, and any missing intermediate directories. Arguments: path (str): Path to directory from root. permissions (~fs.permissions.Permissions, optional): Initial permissions, or `None` to use defaults. recreate (bool): If `False` (the default), attempting to create an existing directory will raise an error. Set to `True` to ignore existing directories. Returns: ~fs.subfs.SubFS: A sub-directory filesystem. Raises: fs.errors.DirectoryExists: if the path is already a directory, and ``recreate`` is `False`. fs.errors.DirectoryExpected: if one of the ancestors in the path is not a directory. """ self.check() with self._lock: dir_paths = tools.get_intermediate_dirs(self, path) for dir_path in dir_paths: try: self.makedir(dir_path, permissions=permissions) except errors.DirectoryExists: if not recreate: raise try: self.makedir(path, permissions=permissions) except errors.DirectoryExists: if not recreate: raise return self.opendir(path)
[docs] def move(self, src_path, dst_path, overwrite=False, preserve_time=False): # type: (Text, Text, bool, bool) -> None """Move a file from ``src_path`` to ``dst_path``. Arguments: src_path (str): A path on the filesystem to move. dst_path (str): A path on the filesystem where the source file will be written to. overwrite (bool): If `True`, destination path will be overwritten if it exists. preserve_time (bool): If `True`, try to preserve mtime of the resources (defaults to `False`). Raises: fs.errors.FileExpected: If ``src_path`` maps to a directory instead of a file. fs.errors.DestinationExists: If ``dst_path`` exists, and ``overwrite`` is `False`. fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If a parent directory of ``dst_path`` does not exist. """ if not overwrite and self.exists(dst_path): raise errors.DestinationExists(dst_path) if self.getinfo(src_path).is_dir: raise errors.FileExpected(src_path) if self.getmeta().get("supports_rename", False): try: src_sys_path = self.getsyspath(src_path) dst_sys_path = self.getsyspath(dst_path) except errors.NoSysPath: # pragma: no cover pass else: try: os.rename(src_sys_path, dst_sys_path) except OSError: pass else: if preserve_time: copy_modified_time(self, src_path, self, dst_path) return with self._lock: with self.open(src_path, "rb") as read_file: # FIXME(@althonos): typing complains because open return IO self.upload(dst_path, read_file) # type: ignore if preserve_time: copy_modified_time(self, src_path, self, dst_path) self.remove(src_path)
[docs] def open( self, path, # type: Text mode="r", # type: Text buffering=-1, # type: int encoding=None, # type: Optional[Text] errors=None, # type: Optional[Text] newline="", # type: Text **options # type: Any ): # type: (...) -> IO """Open a file. Arguments: path (str): A path to a file on the filesystem. mode (str): Mode to open the file object with (defaults to *r*). buffering (int): Buffering policy (-1 to use default buffering, 0 to disable buffering, 1 to select line buffering, of any positive integer to indicate a buffer size). encoding (str): Encoding for text files (defaults to ``utf-8``) errors (str, optional): What to do with unicode decode errors (see `codecs` module for more information). newline (str): Newline parameter. **options: keyword arguments for any additional information required by the filesystem (if any). Returns: io.IOBase: a *file-like* object. Raises: fs.errors.FileExpected: If the path is not a file. fs.errors.FileExists: If the file exists, and *exclusive mode* is specified (``x`` in the mode). fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If the path does not exist. """ validate_open_mode(mode) bin_mode = mode.replace("t", "") bin_file = self.openbin(path, mode=bin_mode, buffering=buffering) io_stream = iotools.make_stream( path, bin_file, mode=mode, buffering=buffering, encoding=encoding or "utf-8", errors=errors, newline=newline, **options ) return io_stream
[docs] def opendir( self, # type: _F path, # type: Text factory=None, # type: Optional[_OpendirFactory] ): # type: (...) -> SubFS[FS] # FIXME(@althonos): use generics here if possible """Get a filesystem object for a sub-directory. Arguments: path (str): Path to a directory on the filesystem. factory (callable, optional): A callable that when invoked with an FS instance and ``path`` will return a new FS object representing the sub-directory contents. If no ``factory`` is supplied then `~fs.subfs_class` will be used. Returns: ~fs.subfs.SubFS: A filesystem representing a sub-directory. Raises: fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If ``path`` does not exist. fs.errors.DirectoryExpected: If ``path`` is not a directory. """ from .subfs import SubFS _factory = factory or self.subfs_class or SubFS if not self.getinfo(path).is_dir: raise errors.DirectoryExpected(path=path) return _factory(self, path)
[docs] def removetree(self, dir_path): # type: (Text) -> None """Recursively remove a directory and all its contents. This method is similar to `~fs.base.FS.removedir`, but will remove the contents of the directory if it is not empty. Arguments: dir_path (str): Path to a directory on the filesystem. Raises: fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If ``dir_path`` does not exist. fs.errors.DirectoryExpected: If ``dir_path`` is not a directory. Caution: A filesystem should never delete its root folder, so ``FS.removetree("/")`` has different semantics: the contents of the root folder will be deleted, but the root will be untouched:: >>> home_fs = fs.open_fs("~") >>> home_fs.removetree("/") >>> home_fs.exists("/") True >>> home_fs.isempty("/") True Combined with `~fs.base.FS.opendir`, this can be used to clear a directory without removing the directory itself:: >>> home_fs = fs.open_fs("~") >>> home_fs.opendir("/Videos").removetree("/") >>> home_fs.exists("/Videos") True >>> home_fs.isempty("/Videos") True """ _dir_path = abspath(normpath(dir_path)) with self._lock: walker = walk.Walker(search="depth") gen_info = walker.info(self, _dir_path) for _path, info in gen_info: if info.is_dir: self.removedir(_path) else: self.remove(_path) if _dir_path != "/": self.removedir(dir_path)
[docs] def scandir( self, path, # type: Text namespaces=None, # type: Optional[Collection[Text]] page=None, # type: Optional[Tuple[int, int]] ): # type: (...) -> Iterator[Info] """Get an iterator of resource info. Arguments: path (str): A path to a directory on the filesystem. namespaces (list, optional): A list of namespaces to include in the resource information, e.g. ``['basic', 'access']``. page (tuple, optional): May be a tuple of ``(<start>, <end>)`` indexes to return an iterator of a subset of the resource info, or `None` to iterate over the entire directory. Paging a directory scan may be necessary for very large directories. Returns: ~collections.abc.Iterator: an iterator of `Info` objects. Raises: fs.errors.DirectoryExpected: If ``path`` is not a directory. fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If ``path`` does not exist. """ namespaces = namespaces or () _path = abspath(normpath(path)) info = ( self.getinfo(join(_path, name), namespaces=namespaces) for name in self.listdir(path) ) iter_info = iter(info) if page is not None: start, end = page iter_info = itertools.islice(iter_info, start, end) return iter_info
[docs] def writebytes(self, path, contents): # type: (Text, bytes) -> None # FIXME(@althonos): accept bytearray and memoryview as well ? """Copy binary data to a file. Arguments: path (str): Destination path on the filesystem. contents (bytes): Data to be written. Raises: TypeError: if contents is not bytes. """ if not isinstance(contents, bytes): raise TypeError("contents must be bytes") with closing(self.open(path, mode="wb")) as write_file: write_file.write(contents)
setbytes = _new_name(writebytes, "setbytes")
[docs] def upload(self, path, file, chunk_size=None, **options): # type: (Text, BinaryIO, Optional[int], **Any) -> None """Set a file to the contents of a binary file object. This method copies bytes from an open binary file to a file on the filesystem. If the destination exists, it will first be truncated. Arguments: path (str): A path on the filesystem. file (io.IOBase): a file object open for reading in binary mode. chunk_size (int, optional): Number of bytes to read at a time, if a simple copy is used, or `None` to use sensible default. **options: Implementation specific options required to open the source file. Raises: fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If a parent directory of ``path`` does not exist. Note that the file object ``file`` will *not* be closed by this method. Take care to close it after this method completes (ideally with a context manager). Example: >>> with open('~/movies/starwars.mov', 'rb') as read_file: ... my_fs.upload('starwars.mov', read_file) """ with self._lock: with self.openbin(path, mode="wb", **options) as dst_file: tools.copy_file_data(file, dst_file, chunk_size=chunk_size)
setbinfile = _new_name(upload, "setbinfile")
[docs] def writefile( self, path, # type: Text file, # type: IO encoding=None, # type: Optional[Text] errors=None, # type: Optional[Text] newline="", # type: Text ): # type: (...) -> None """Set a file to the contents of a file object. Arguments: path (str): A path on the filesystem. file (io.IOBase): A file object open for reading. encoding (str, optional): Encoding of destination file, defaults to `None` for binary. errors (str, optional): How encoding errors should be treated (same as `io.open`). newline (str): Newline parameter (same as `io.open`). This method is similar to `~FS.upload`, in that it copies data from a file-like object to a resource on the filesystem, but unlike ``upload``, this method also supports creating files in text-mode (if the ``encoding`` argument is supplied). Note that the file object ``file`` will *not* be closed by this method. Take care to close it after this method completes (ideally with a context manager). Example: >>> with open('myfile.txt') as read_file: ... my_fs.writefile('myfile.txt', read_file) """ mode = "wb" if encoding is None else "wt" with self._lock: with self.open( path, mode=mode, encoding=encoding, errors=errors, newline=newline ) as dst_file: tools.copy_file_data(file, dst_file)
setfile = _new_name(writefile, "setfile")
[docs] def settimes(self, path, accessed=None, modified=None): # type: (Text, Optional[datetime], Optional[datetime]) -> None """Set the accessed and modified time on a resource. Arguments: path: A path to a resource on the filesystem. accessed (datetime, optional): The accessed time, or `None` (the default) to use the current time. modified (datetime, optional): The modified time, or `None` (the default) to use the same time as the ``accessed`` parameter. """ details = {} # type: dict raw_info = {"details": details} details["accessed"] = ( time.time() if accessed is None else datetime_to_epoch(accessed) ) details["modified"] = ( details["accessed"] if modified is None else datetime_to_epoch(modified) ) self.setinfo(path, raw_info)
[docs] def writetext( self, path, # type: Text contents, # type: Text encoding="utf-8", # type: Text errors=None, # type: Optional[Text] newline="", # type: Text ): # type: (...) -> None """Create or replace a file with text. Arguments: path (str): Destination path on the filesystem. contents (str): Text to be written. encoding (str, optional): Encoding of destination file (defaults to ``'utf-8'``). errors (str, optional): How encoding errors should be treated (same as `io.open`). newline (str): Newline parameter (same as `io.open`). Raises: TypeError: if ``contents`` is not a unicode string. """ if not isinstance(contents, six.text_type): raise TypeError("contents must be unicode") with closing( self.open( path, mode="wt", encoding=encoding, errors=errors, newline=newline ) ) as write_file: write_file.write(contents)
settext = _new_name(writetext, "settext")
[docs] def touch(self, path): # type: (Text) -> None """Touch a file on the filesystem. Touching a file means creating a new file if ``path`` doesn't exist, or update accessed and modified times if the path does exist. This method is similar to the linux command of the same name. Arguments: path (str): A path to a file on the filesystem. """ with self._lock: now = time.time() if not self.create(path): raw_info = {"details": {"accessed": now, "modified": now}} self.setinfo(path, raw_info)
[docs] def validatepath(self, path): # type: (Text) -> Text """Validate a path, returning a normalized absolute path on sucess. Many filesystems have restrictions on the format of paths they support. This method will check that ``path`` is valid on the underlaying storage mechanism and throw a `~fs.errors.InvalidPath` exception if it is not. Arguments: path (str): A path. Returns: str: A normalized, absolute path. Raises: fs.errors.InvalidPath: If the path is invalid. fs.errors.FilesystemClosed: if the filesystem is closed. fs.errors.InvalidCharsInPath: If the path contains invalid characters. """ self.check() if isinstance(path, bytes): raise TypeError( "paths must be unicode (not str)" if six.PY2 else "paths must be str (not bytes)" ) meta = self.getmeta() invalid_chars = typing.cast(six.text_type, meta.get("invalid_path_chars")) if invalid_chars: if set(path).intersection(invalid_chars): raise errors.InvalidCharsInPath(path) max_sys_path_length = typing.cast(int, meta.get("max_sys_path_length", -1)) if max_sys_path_length != -1: try: sys_path = self.getsyspath(path) except errors.NoSysPath: # pragma: no cover pass else: if len(sys_path) > max_sys_path_length: _msg = "path too long (max {max_chars} characters in sys path)" msg = _msg.format(max_chars=max_sys_path_length) raise errors.InvalidPath(path, msg=msg) path = abspath(normpath(path)) return path
# ---------------------------------------------------------------- # # Helper methods # # Filesystems should not implement these methods. # # ---------------------------------------------------------------- #
[docs] def getbasic(self, path): # type: (Text) -> Info """Get the *basic* resource info. This method is shorthand for the following:: fs.getinfo(path, namespaces=['basic']) Arguments: path (str): A path on the filesystem. Returns: ~fs.info.Info: Resource information object for ``path``. Note: .. deprecated:: 2.4.13 Please use `~FS.getinfo` directly, which is required to always return the *basic* namespace. """ warnings.warn( "method 'getbasic' has been deprecated, please use 'getinfo'", DeprecationWarning, ) return self.getinfo(path, namespaces=["basic"])
[docs] def getdetails(self, path): # type: (Text) -> Info """Get the *details* resource info. This method is shorthand for the following:: fs.getinfo(path, namespaces=['details']) Arguments: path (str): A path on the filesystem. Returns: ~fs.info.Info: Resource information object for ``path``. """ return self.getinfo(path, namespaces=["details"])
[docs] def check(self): # type: () -> None """Check if a filesystem may be used. Raises: fs.errors.FilesystemClosed: if the filesystem is closed. """ if self.isclosed(): raise errors.FilesystemClosed()
[docs] def match(self, patterns, name): # type: (Optional[Iterable[Text]], Text) -> bool """Check if a name matches any of a list of wildcards. If a filesystem is case *insensitive* (such as Windows) then this method will perform a case insensitive match (i.e. ``*.py`` will match the same names as ``*.PY``). Otherwise the match will be case sensitive (``*.py`` and ``*.PY`` will match different names). Arguments: patterns (list, optional): A list of patterns, e.g. ``['*.py']``, or `None` to match everything. name (str): A file or directory name (not a path) Returns: bool: `True` if ``name`` matches any of the patterns. Raises: TypeError: If ``patterns`` is a single string instead of a list (or `None`). Example: >>> my_fs.match(['*.py'], '__init__.py') True >>> my_fs.match(['*.jpg', '*.png'], 'foo.gif') False Note: If ``patterns`` is `None` (or ``['*']``), then this method will always return `True`. """ if patterns is None: return True if isinstance(patterns, six.text_type): raise TypeError("patterns must be a list or sequence") case_sensitive = not typing.cast( bool, self.getmeta().get("case_insensitive", False) ) matcher = wildcard.get_matcher(patterns, case_sensitive) return matcher(name)
[docs] def tree(self, **kwargs): # type: (**Any) -> None """Render a tree view of the filesystem to stdout or a file. The parameters are passed to :func:`~fs.tree.render`. Keyword Arguments: path (str): The path of the directory to start rendering from (defaults to root folder, i.e. ``'/'``). file (io.IOBase): An open file-like object to render the tree, or `None` for stdout. encoding (str): Unicode encoding, or `None` to auto-detect. max_levels (int): Maximum number of levels to display, or `None` for no maximum. with_color (bool): Enable terminal color output, or `None` to auto-detect terminal. dirs_first (bool): Show directories first. exclude (list): Option list of directory patterns to exclude from the tree render. filter (list): Optional list of files patterns to match in the tree render. """ from .tree import render render(self, **kwargs)
[docs] def hash(self, path, name): # type: (Text, Text) -> Text """Get the hash of a file's contents. Arguments: path(str): A path on the filesystem. name(str): One of the algorithms supported by the `hashlib` module, e.g. `"md5"` or `"sha256"`. Returns: str: The hex digest of the hash. Raises: fs.errors.UnsupportedHash: If the requested hash is not supported. fs.errors.ResourceNotFound: If ``path`` does not exist. fs.errors.FileExpected: If ``path`` exists but is not a file. """ self.validatepath(path) try: hash_object = hashlib.new(name) except ValueError: raise errors.UnsupportedHash("hash '{}' is not supported".format(name)) with self.openbin(path) as binary_file: while True: chunk = binary_file.read(1024 * 1024) if not chunk: break hash_object.update(chunk) return hash_object.hexdigest()